Nubiart Diary - Chibok Second Anniversary

By Kubara Zamani | Mon 11 April 2016

A different perspective on the African world

Mohamed Abrini, one of the suspects in the Paris gun and suicide attacks on 13 Nov is among those now under arrest. He is a childhood friend of Salah Abdeslam and twice drove with the Abdeslam brothers from Belgium to Paris and back on 10 and 11 November, He was seen at a petrol station on the way to Paris driving a Renault Clio car that was used on the night of the attacks. Salah Abdeslam’s arrest brought forward a bombing and shooting campaign by Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant / Daesh members that was planned for Paris over the Easter Bank Holiday weekend. Instead the cell, many of whom were of north Afrikan descent, struck on the morning of Tues 22 Mar at Zaventem airport and Maalbeek Metro station in Brussels killing 32 civilians with three suicide bombers. Abrini is believed to be the third man at the airport. The Belgian authorities continue to make arrests but they now think all the major players in the Franco-Belgian cell are either dead or under arrest. This summer’s European football championship is thought to still be a target with any incident there likely to get widespread media exposure given the high profile nature of the event.


The second anniversary of the kidnap of over 200 schoolgirls in Chibok, Borno state, by Boko Haram falls on 14-15 April. The families and their supporters held a protest in Abuja over the lack of progress in returning the girls. A ‘proof of life’ video with 15 of the abductees was released by their captors but the majority of the schoolgirls have still not been traced. Some will have become ‘jihadi brides’ to the fighters and their supporters. There is also an increase in young girls being used as suicide bombers. Even where some of the kidnapped girls and women have been rescued they have been unable to reintegrate to normal family life due to the level of trauma and brainwashing they have endured while in captivity. There have been many other kidnaps centred on north-eastern Nigeria where a state of emergency remains in force. The military alliance of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon is still chasing Boko Haram and their affiliates throughout the borderlands between the four countries.

A 6,000 strong ‘stabilisation’ force is being discussed to intervene in the Libyan quagmire. There would be at least 1,000 British troops. It was the British and the French who were crucial in the toppling of President Muammar Gaddafi. This led to the ‘balkanisation’ of the country with scores of militias controlling different regions and infrastructure assets such as the airport and the oil field concessions. There are fears any western force would become a target even if they were only ‘trainers’ and ‘advisers’. The best they can hope for is to use training camps in neighbouring Tunisia but given the attacks on the Bardo Museum and the beach in Sousse last year they could find themselves getting dragged into a regional ‘anti-insurgency’ campaign, especially if drone strikes are called by the force.

There are still two ‘governments’ in Libya with the ‘internationally recognised’ version having been chased out of the capital, Tripoli, and operating from Tobruk. Sirte, once the Gaddafi heartland, is now dominated by fighters from Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant who are perpetrating their brand of Salafist jihadism. Benghazi, the centre of the anti-Gaddafi resistance, is still uncontrollable and it was from here that a fervent strain of anti-Afrikan racism and brutality emanated from during the struggle.


Plans have been unveiled for Egypt and Saudi Arabia to build a bridge over the Red Sea between the two countries. It is a project that has been discussed for decades but it seems there are now concrete plans to make it a reality. To smooth the deal the Egyptian dictator President Abdel Fatah al-Sisi agreed to hand over the islands of Tiran and Sanafir which Egypt has controlled since 1950. The uninhabited islands, once the border between the Ottoman empire and British-controlled Egypt, are strategically important because of their location on the sea route to the ports of Aqaba in Jordan and Eilat in Israel. Egypt’s blockade of the Strait of Tiran in 1967 was one of the main triggers for the Arab-Israeli war, also known as the six-day war. Egypt sent troops to Tiran and Sanafir in the mid-1950s in response to a Saudi request to protect them from Israeli invasion. Israel occupied them in 1967, but evacuated the islands in 1982 in line with the peace treaty with Egypt.

The 30-mile bridge will cost about $4bn and run from Sharm el-Sheikh in the Sinai peninsula to the Red Sea islands and then onto the Saudi mainland around Tabuk. It was not mentioned where the bridge would be built, but at the closest point - Nabq, just north of Sharm el-Sheikh, in Egypt, and Ras Alsheikh Hamid, in Saudi Arabia - the two countries are 16km apart. Funding for the causeway was announced from the Saudi Binladin Group [yes, the construction arm of Osama’s family!!!] which will work with the Egyptian government-run firm Arab Contractors.

The announcement was made during a visit by King Salman of Saudi Arabia to Egypt and is the culmination of six years of negotiations. The agreement is subject to a vote in the Egyptian parliament but critics are calling for a national referendum to be held on the issue. The move has been criticised by Egyptians both inside and outside the country with protestors being arrested. One cartoon showed Sisi swapping the islands for a sack of rice. The Muslim Brotherhood said the islands had been handed over “for a fistful of dollars, or in exchange for support for government policies sanctioning murder, detentions, violations, forced disappearances and extrajudicial killings”.

President Mubarak had discussed the scheme before but abandoned it in 2005 when the Israelis said it was a security risk. President al-Sisi is much more hostile to the Palestinian cause and specifically Hamas who control Gaza. He sees them as allies of his Muslim Brotherhood enemies and has worked to weaken their influence across the Occupied Territories. Israel has not made any complaints so far this time so that gives you an idea of how acceptable they find al-Sisi. Meanwhile, the Saudimites are still playing their three-four-five-faced game for which their forebears were repeatedly castigated in The Christian Bible 2,000 years ago. They manage to practice the most extreme form of Islam and slavery – Wahabbism while funding terrorists globally. They present themselves as pious protectors of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina – visiting them is one of the biggest shake-downs of modern times. And yet they still manage to bend over backwards in awe of western trinkets and consumerism while selling out their precious oil reserves.

You have to shake yourself to remember that less than a century ago most of these Gulf states that are now in the ascendancy were run by nomadic sand-pirates while the areas of the so-called Middle East that had the most developed cities, religious and cultural influence, such as Syria, Iraq and Iran were far more influential and respected than any Saudimite will ever be.

But back to 2016 and the bridge so far has the suggested name of ‘King Salman bin Abdel Aziz Bridge’, which quite frankly turns our stomach at the very thought of it. Salman, who was presented with the Nile Collar during his visit, told the Egyptian parliament that the two countries would work together to create a pan-Arab defence force, an Egyptian idea first suggested last year but apparently overtaken by Riyadh’s announcement of an anti-terrorist coalition of Islamic countries. The bridge will also provide an alternative Hajj route, and is expected to serve a million passengers and pilgrims annually. The bridge can be used for further Arabic colonisation of the Afrikan mainland but it is also an opportunity for Afrikan entrepreneurs to access markets without having to be dictated to by the metropolitan centres of the former / current colonial powers. But as they say ‘no-one can get in your trousers if you are wearing them’. If Afrikans wanted to finance and control a link to Asia there may have been 101 obstacles and reasons why it never happened but the bottom line is in the cold light of day we were not at the stage where we had the money, the stability or the political will to get it done. So it often comes down to who actually pulls off the deal not who is the most deserving, benevolent or visionary.

Concerns have been raised about environment effects and security. The extra traffic and additional development could cause a further decline of the threatened Red Sea dugong population and damage to coral reefs and fisheries.

Besides the announcement, Saudi and Egyptian representatives signed 17 investment deals and memorandums of understanding amounting to $1.7bn. Saudi Arabia is one of the top foreign investors in Egypt, with more than $8bn pledged late last year in sectors such as tourism, agriculture and information technology. It has also promised to help the country meet its energy needs. Riyadh has helped to finance Sisi’s government since the Egyptian leader - then the army chief - overthrew President Mohamed Morsi in 2013. The bridge is part of Egypt’s strategy to re-establish itself after all the turmoil. It was the venue for the signing of the 26-country Afrikan regional trade zone which is meant to eventually lead to all Afrikan countries lifting trade and tariff barriers among their businesses and citizens.

The other big scheme announced a year ago was to build a new capital east of Cairo. It is estimated to cost $45bn and take up to seven years to complete. Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates pledged $12bn in aid and investment towards the project. It would ease congestion and overpopulation in Cairo whose 18 million population is expected to double in the next 40 years. The new city would be built over 700 sq km and house about five million residents. It will be built by Capital City Partners, a private real estate investment fund led by Emirati Mohamed Alabbar. Dubai businessman Mr Alabbar built the world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. It would have 2,000 schools and colleges and more than 600 health care facilities. It is expected a million jobs would be created.

A report by Chicago City Hall has categorically stated that the Chicago Police Department have ‘no regard for the sanctity of life when it comes to people of colour.’ The force were found to have systematically alienated Afrikan-American and Hispanic residents and visitors. Afrikan-Americans make up a third of the city’s population but 74% of those shot by the police.

Nubiart Diary is offering one free ticket to Find Your Voice and the Black Cinema Club’s screening of ‘Looking For Love’. Menelik Shabazz’s documentary explores love and relationships in the Afrikan community with a mixture of interviews and sketches. On Sat 30 Apr at 4-8pm at Park View Academy, West Green Road, Tottenham, London, N15 3RB (see below for full details).

Question: What was the title of Menelik Shabazz’s first feature film?

The closing date for entries is Sun 17 Apr. Answers by e-mail to

NUBIART: Focus on arts, business, education, health, political developments and the media.


~ ‘HIGHLIFE-JAZZ AND AFRO-SOUL (1963-69)’ - Fela Ransome Kuti & His Koola Lobitos [Knitting Factory Records – Out Now] This 39-track triple CD highlights Fela’s early musical development. It’s before him and Tony Allen consolidated Afrobeat but all the elements that fed into are here – highlife, big band jazz, be-bop, Latin grooves and the soul / funk revues of James Brown and other American-based artists who by then had an international chart and performance reputation. Even the most avid Fela completists might have been missing some of these cuts.

CD1 are the early singles often with Fela on trumpet which was the horn he was playing when he came to London to study. It was only later he moved onto the sax and sometimes you wonder if it was because it was easier to move around the stage, direct the band and interact with the audience why he made the switch. It is on the second half of this CD that you can really hear the hard-bop influence of the likes of Miles Davis, John Coltrane and Charlie Parker – which is often forgotten in Nigerian music. Many of these tracks were not widely available on CD until now.

CD2 is the classic 1965 album which has been released a few times as a standalone CD but here it is truly in its context with the tracks that led up to it and that came after it. Most of the tracks are 3-4 minutes suitable for the 7-inch format. Fela and the band hadn’t yet moved to the extended workouts that would become a feature of their later output where one track would take the one side of an album or in some cases be the entire album as part one and part two.

CD3 consists of live tracks recorded at the Afro Spot. Here you get to hear Fela the showman and conductor at work. There are alternative versions of ‘Lai Se’, two cuts of ‘Waka Waka’ and a live cut of ‘Home Cooking’ that Tony Allen, easily up there as one of the all-time greatest kit drummers, took for the title track of one of his albums four decades later.

We will only review books we have read and DVDs we have seen and that are available at reasonable prices online or in shops or libraries. However, given the nature and current state of Afrikan publishing and film production there may be books and films on this list that are worth the extra effort to track down.

~ ‘MAMMY WATER: IN SEARCH OF THE WATER SPIRITS IN NIGERIA’. Dir: Sabine Jell-Bahlsen [Documentary Educational Resources] This film originally came out in 1990 and was transferred to DVD two decades later. It looks at the Mammy Water / Mami Wata cultural influence in the south-east and Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. However, the veneration of the water goddess stretches far beyond the West Afrikan areas featured here down to the Kongo and was carried across the Atlantic to resurface in the Caribbean and the Americas. Among the Yoruba and Candomble / Santeria she would be represented as Yemanja, Yemaya, Ochun, Oshun and Olokun. She is called on by fishermen and women to get a good catch and for all other water-related activities and travel.

Jell-Bahlsen travels to the Ibibio nation and interviews Mama Grace Joe. Her daughter Mary Magdalene is a Mami Wata river goddess and we see her performing her duties during celebrations.

The next visit is to the Ijaw speakers at Nembe. They, like many of the other adherents, have the python as the first being of Creation. Chalk is used to communicate with the water spirits. This reminded me of a discussion we had with the Igbo dibia Prof John Umeh several years ago who kept stressing the importance of chalk in any spiritual communion. Also important was the reciprocity of give and take in any sacrifice it can’t all be one way.

Among the Igbo of Oguda they have a four-day week one of which, Eke, was sacred to the python while the next day, Ori, was sacred to the water goddess Ohamvre. Madam Eze Mmrri Di Egwu has a powerful female water society. The Oguta lake is clear or turquoise while the Urash river, representing, the husband / male, is muddy and reddish. Where they meet has several colours and it is here that ceremonies are conducted representing the union of the male and female energies.

Jell-Bahlsen has written many books and articles on the river goddess concept. One book we picked up at the same time as the DVD was her ‘The Water Goddess in Igbo Cosmology’, published by African World Press. You can also get more information at the website:

You may also find the following link of interest:

~ ‘DEMYSTIFYING CANCER: EXPOSING THE DECEPTION OF THE ‘NO-CURE’ FOR CANCER’ – Devon S J Morgan [TruthSeekers Publishing. ISBN: 000-0-0000000-0-0] This book gets to grips with the economics and politics of the global cancer industry. Given the growth of ‘various cancers’ over the recent decades questions need to be asked about how the vast quantities of research money has been spent over the last century, the failure of the allopathic – chemotherapy / radiotherapy - medical model, what markers quality as ‘remission’ and what can people do to lessen their chances of being diagnosed with cancer.

We highly recommend that everyone concerned with their own diagnosis or that of a loved one read this book. It covers many strands of why cancer has risen to become the number two ‘killer’ being blamed for around 13% of all deaths. One example is to pick out the missing body part from the following list of common cancer sites: Bladder – Breast – Cervix – Colon – Endometrium - Oesophagus – Gall-bladder – Kidney – Liver – Mouth – Ovaries – Pancreas – Pharynx – Prostate – Rectum – Stomach – Testicles – Thyroid – Uterus - Vulva – Skin – Brain. Most doctors see a maximum of two heart cancer cases a year because the major cause of cancer is a lack of oxygen and the heart is where the most highly oxygenated blood is thus making it virtually immune to cancer. Yet oncologists, nurses and hospice workers never discuss that instead saying higher oxygen levels in the body come AFTER the cancer has become present. According to the author a fully oxygenated body does not die.

The body should have a slightly alkaline balance and therefore the human diet should be 70% alkaline and 30% acidic. Meat and other toxic foods should be minimised or removed from the diet as the human intestines is so long that ingested toxins cannot be disposed of quickly as with animals that have a shorter intestine so can stay in the body fermenting and causing damage for over 72 hours before the bulk of it is emitted.

The role of Big Pharma and their search for a ‘blockbuster’ drug that they can patent is also hindering responsible discussion about what is cancer. Because a patented drug must have a unique synthetic combination many doctors and nurses did not train with the successive new drugs that come onto the market and so are dependent on the companies and researchers to advise them on the efficacy of whatever they are prescribing. However, as board members of the cancer charities are often also working for Big Pharma there is a clear conflict of interest even in the most basic question – if you could ‘cure cancer’ but not make any profit from it or gain prestigious positions would you bring that product or treatment to the market?

Nubiart Diary

We welcome feedback on any event you have attended that was listed in Nubiart Diary. It helps us with the selection of future listings and is also info we can pass on to the event organisers where appropriate.


- ‘What Is Rastafari?’ On Fri 15 Apr At 7–10.30pm. Adm: £5 / Under-21’s – Free.

“Jah come from Zion in a plane of iron / Palisadoes Airport a where him did land / When dem see the King mi seh the dreads dem sing / And dem smoke ganja pipe under the aeroplane wing.” – Peter Metro, ‘Lord Ho’

What inspired the belief in the divinity of Haile Selassie I & Empress Menen?; Were the founding fathers and mothers of Rastafari insane or geniuses?; Is Rastafari just another version of Christianity?; Does Rastafari deal with Politics & Economics? In line with the 50th Anniversary of the visit of H.I.M. Haile Selassie I to Jamaica, ShakaRa Speaks explores the ideas that went into the growth of one of the most dynamic & misunderstood Black Power movements ever in history. We will breakdown how the philosophy of Rastafari revolutionised the mental, spiritual & physically focus of Afrikan people worldwide; and in turn, made spirituality a primary tool for Revolution! The discussion marks the 50th anniversary of Haile Selassie’s visit to the Caribbean.

~ ‘Lioness on the Rise Pt2 – Sister Souljahs: Now & The Future’. On Fri 29 Apr at 7pm. Adm: £3 / Under-21’s – Free. With Nehanda Sankofa, member of the A.R.M.Y. and the founder of Sisters Sankofa Rising; and Toyah RBG, Secretary of the Afrikan Emancipation Day Reparations March Committee.

All events at Mama Afrika Kulcha Shap, 282 High Road Leyton, London, E10 5PW. Tel: 020 8539 2154 / 07908 814 152. Web:


- ‘Race and Representation’ Talk. On Sat 16 Apr at 2pm. Plus ‘O’ (Othello) at 4.15pm at BFI Southbank, Belvedere Road, London, SE1 8XT. Tel: 020 7928 3232. Web: Join a special debate about Shakespeare and the notion of ‘blackness’ in his plays – in their stories as well as in the performance. This session will look at casting, the cultural reverence in which the work is still held, its assumed ‘universality’ and its application to different periods, regions and cultures. This lively, illustrated discussion will be hosted by actor-director Burt Caesar, who’s joined by acclaimed stage and screen actor Hugh Quarshie (Holby City, Star Wars). ‘O’ / Odin (Mekhi Phifer) is a talented sportsman who becomes the target of a jealous rival. The film was withdrawn from distribution for two years.

- ‘Queen Nzingha’. On Sun 17 Apr at 3.30pm at Phoenix Cinema, East Finchley, London, N2 9PJ. Adm: £9.50. Tel: 020 8444 6789. Web: The blockbuster keeps on busting! Nzingha, an African Warrior Queen of the area now referred to as Congo / Angola, was on her throne at the time as England’s James I. This epic historical action-drama tells the astonishing true story of this female general who fought a 40 year war against slavery. The story begins in 1617, the year Nzingha’s father King Kilwanji dies. The Portuguese army takes advantage of the political confusion and invades Southern Africa so they can kidnap the population and force them to work on sugar plantations in Brazil. Princess Nzingha has to fight to gain the throne and then lead her people in a battle for national freedom.


- ‘Secrets of Soho’. On Sat 16 Apr at 11am.

- ‘St Pauls / Bank’. On Sun 17 Apr at 12 pm

For full details e-mail:

~ TWO TEMPLE PLACE PRESENT ‘BEYOND BEAUTY: TRANSFORMING THE BODY IN ANCIENT EGYPT’. This major new exhibition not only explores the day-to-day routines of ancient Egyptians, it also addresses the importance of appearance in the afterlife. Alongside extraordinary coffins and funerary head coverings are their owners’ ancient mirrors, combs and hairpins, bracelets, necklaces, sandals, textiles, cosmetic vessels, scent jars and other ornaments, as well as tablets giving us insights into elite styles of the age, which have echoes in the fashion and lifestyle magazines of the present day. ‘Beyond Beauty’ is curated by Dr Margaret Serpico with Heba Abd el Gawad and brings together Egyptology collections from our seven partner organisations: Bagshaw Museum (Kirklees Council), Bexhill Museum, Bolton Museum, Ipswich Museum, Macclesfield Museums, Royal Pavilion & Museums (Brighton & Hove) and Touchstones Rochdale. Until 24 Apr on Mon, Thurs-Sat at 10am-4.30pm, Sun at 11am-4.30pm and Wed 10am-9pm at Two Temple Place, London, WC2. Tel: 020 7836 3715.

~ ROYAL ALBERT HALL AND SONGLINES PRESENT ‘BEYOND THE MAIN STAGE’ WITH AZIZA BRAHIM. Saharawi musician activist promotes her new album, ‘Abbar el Hamada’. On Tues 26 April at 7:30pm at the Elgar Room, Royal Albert Hall, Kensington Gore, London, SW7 2AP. Adm: £17.50. Tel: 020 7589 8212. Web:

~ FIND YOUR VOICE AND BLACK CINEMA CLUB PRESENT ‘LOOKING FOR LOVE’. Screening of Menelik Shabazz’s exploration of love and relationships in the Afrikan community with a mixture of interviews and sketches. On Sat 30 Apr at 4-8pm at Park View Academy, West Green Road, Tottenham, London, N15 3RB. Adm: £7. Tel: Brother Dougie on 07960 239 493 / 07882 403 871.

~ WANDSWORTH ARTS FRINGE FESTIVAL PRESENT THE FURZEDOWN OAK COMMUNITY ART PROJECT – ‘MAKING A MARK’. A group of local artist & residents have come together to transform a wood from a locally felled oak tree into a sculpture trail in Furzedown. The aims of these workshops are to help create a sense of pride & inform a sculpture I’m creating to be placed outside Sprout Arts. Participants will be able to express themselves through creative writing, artistic design & carving. On Fri 6, 13 & 20 May / Thurs 12 May and Tues 17 May at 10.30am-12.30pm with storyteller and narrative coach Eli Anderson and at 1-3pm with artist Ken McCalla at Sprout Arts, 74 Moyser Rd, Furzedown, London, SW16 6SQ. Adm: Free. E-mail:

Pamela Phatsimo Sunstrum,
Polyhedra, 2016, video animation

~ TIWANI CONTEMPORARY PRESENTS ‘Polyhedra’. A solo exhibition of new work by Johannesburg-based artist Pamela Phatsimo Sunstrum. Her work was previously seen at the group exhibition ‘Mythopoeia’ at Tiwani Contemporary in April 2015. Sunstrum’s multidisciplinary work alludes to mythology, geology and theories on the nature of the universe. The exhibition will include a number of new drawings, a large window drawing and a new, previously unseen video animation. Exhibition continues until 7 May 2016 on Tues-Fri at 11am-6pm and Sat at 12-5pm at Tiwani Contemporary, 16 Little Portland Street, London, W1W 8BP. E-mail: Web:

~ THE AFRICA CENTRE & INZART PRESENT ‘THE PEOPLE WATCHERS’. Exhibition of paintings and collages by Tafadzwa Gwetai and sculptures by John Hlatywayo. On Mon-Fri until 6 May at 12-5pm at The Africa Centre Gallery, 66 Great Suffolk Street, London, SE1 0BL. Tel: 020 7836 1973. E-mail: Web:


- Tivoli Gardens Inquiry Picket. On Tues 10 May at 12.30-2pm at the Jamaican High Commission, 1 Prince Consort Rd, London, SW7 2BZ,

- Walter Rodney Assassination Inquiry Picket. On Thurs 12 May at 12.30-2pm at the Guyanese High Commission, 3 Palace Ct, London, W2 4LP.

- Monthly meeting. On the first Sun in the month at 12-2pm at Islington Pensioners Forum, 1A Providence Court, Providence Place, London, N1 0RN. E-mail: info@cls­ Web: http://www.cls­

~ POSITIVE MIND ENERGY PRESENT ‘HEALTH BEAUTY AND WELL-BEING FAIR’. With an international fashion show of Afrikan, Caribbean and Indian costumes. Stalls ranging from: Mind, body and spirit therapies; Aloe Vera products; Head Massage; Crystal healing; Younique; Vegan food; and Henna painting. On Sun 22 May at 10am-1pm at Victoria Hall, Saltaire, Bradford, BD18 1PF. Adm: £2. Tel: Rosie – 07534 268 421. E-mail:

~ JENGBA MEETINGS. JENGbA campaigners can deliver lectures to Law, Criminology, Media, Sociology, Youth Studies departments as well as school children. On the second Tues of every month at 7pm at Edward Woods Community Centre, London, W11 4TX. Tel: 07709 115793 / 07725 727520 (Media Enquiries). New office: Office A, Norland House, Queensdale Cresent, London, W11 4TL. E-mail: /

~ BUNDU DIA KONGO (BDK). African cultural and spiritual group, working towards the spiritual and psychological growth and development of Africans all over the world. Let us make a positive change now. Our story pre-dates Egypt and continues today. Come and learn about African prophets, African history and African spiritual practices at our weekly Zikua.

- Sun at 1.30–4.30pm at 108 Battersea High Street, London, SW11 3HP. Tel: Makaba - 07951 059 853. E-mail:

- Sun at 12.30–3.15pm at Malika House, 81 George Street, Lozells, Birmingham, B19 1Sl. Tel: Mbuta Mayala – 07404 789 329.

~ THE AUSAR AUSET SOCIETY GI GONG CLASSES. Every Monday at 7.30–9pm at Hazel Road Community Centre, Hazel Road, Kensal Green, London, NW10 5PP. Adm: £5 per class. Tel: 07951- 252-427. E-mail:

Contact: Kubara Zamani, Afrikan Quest International, PO Box 35165, London, SE5 8WU. Tel: 07811 494 969. E-mail:

Afrikan Quest International

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