Nubiart Diary - Nubian Spirit / Somalia

By The Ligali Organisation | Sun 3 May 2009


“To be Afrikan is to be a spiritual being.” – Dr Kimani Nehusi

‘Nubian Spirit: The African Legacy of the Nile Valley’ is a journey through ancient Afrika’s golden times with director, producer and narrator, Louis Buckley. We first saw this film at a day of Nubian culture in March and were impressed by how well the issues of Nubian history were covered. The DVD documentary has footage of some of the major sites of Nubian and Kush**e culture from the Sudanese side of the border with Egypt.

While Egypt has a higher profile because of the ruthless exploitation of the multi-millennium dynastic period by the current Arabised rulers and merchants it is a little known fact that there are actually more pyramids – 212, in total – in Sudan than in Egypt.

Contributions come from pan-Afrikanists Anthony Browder, Robin Walker, Dr Kimani Nehusi (UEL), Onyeka, Ife Piankhi, K N Chimbiri, the Fitzwilliam Museum’s Sally-Ann Ashton, the Petrie Museum’s Stephen Quirke, archaeologist Krzysztof Grzymski and the Nubian scholar Rashid El-Sheikh. Themes include: Ancient Religion & Spiritual Mythology; Temples & Education; Technological Advancements; Spirituality & Moral Order; The Nubians in Kemet; Trade Industry & the Royal City of Meroe; and Foreign Invaders & the Split of the Nile Valley Civilisations.

Onyeka pointed out that Egypt, or Kemet as it was then, was the multicultural expression of the Afrikan experience as the civilisation was built on knowledge from migrants from the South (Nubia and the Mountains of the Moon in Uganda) and West across what is now the Sahara desert but was more verdant in the past. Their cosmology was based on the notion of building a replica of the heavens here on earth which they achieved across various parts of Kemet and Nubia.

The first concept of the Trinity of father, son and virgin mother [not the later anti-woman Christian ‘Holy Ghost’] was embodied in the story of Ausar (Osiris), Auset (Isis) and Heru (Horus). That allowed for ideas of justice, fertilisation, regeneration, rebirth, balance and divine order to be embodied in the first examples of agriculture, writing, metalwork, mining, glasswork, physics, biology, chemistry and warfare.

The technological superiority of Afrikan science was probably best embodied in the creation of a near-accurate calendar over 6,000 years ago with the first recorded date being over 4,200 BCE – five centuries before even Jews say their Hebrew ancestors were invented. If we followed that Kamitian calendar of 365¼ days and 12x30 day months with a 13th month of five days our calendar would be around the year 6,250 not the current 2009 of the Gregorian calendar. We would also not be so quick to adopt the anti-Afrikan notion that ‘Black Man Time’ means turning up late for everything. We would never have created such an accurate calendar if we turned up late for observations and miscalculated the summer and winter solstices, spring and autumn equinoxes, solar and lunar eclipses and the inundation of the Nile. Later, the Romans adopted elements of the calendar but made changes and called it Julian, after the emperor Julius Caesar.

To achieve that as well as the skills involved in masonry, building design and geometrical alignment of large structures such as pyramids, the sphinx, castles, temples and houses indicates anything up to 12,000 years of cumulative work, study, recording, testing ideas and confirming recurring trends.

Meroe and Napata were the seats of the Kush**e empire which grew as Kemet became more susceptible to foreign rulers – Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs. The Meroitic script was devised as an alternative to Kemetian hieroglyphs which were being used by the invaders to undermine Afrikans. There are 900 books in Meroitic which has still not been deciphered. Kush had several Kandace queens until its fall to the Christianised Axumite empire in the 4th century AD. Meroe is a planned city and was considered the ‘Birmingham of Afrika’ by Europeans who went there in the 20th century AD.

This DVD is essential for everyone interested in the skills and concepts that embody the Afrikan worldview and as an inspiration towards what we can achieve in the future to put Afrika back on the right path again. For more info on Nubian Spirit contact Louis Buckley, Black Nine Films. Tel: 07957 994 138.

One of the areas that has been mentioned for millennia as a centre of trade, shipping and high quality manufactures was Punt, modern-day Somalia. Today, Somalia is often considered by many as a place of chaos, instability and death with Puntland as a haven for ‘pirates’ who are getting in the way of fair trade on the high seas. The two articles below put the situation in a bit more context and show how the problem is not one of lazy people with no culture or skills but a degeneration caused by foreign invaders and exploitation – a continuation of that which caused the demise of the Kemetian and Nubian dynasties. Meanwhile, the UN and its related agencies refuse to recognise the success story that is Somaliland which has developed stability through the hard work of its people and funds from its diaspora.

Johann Hari, The Independent, Monday, 5 January 2009

Some are clearly just gangsters. But others are trying to stop illegal dumping and trawling

Who imagined that in 2009, the world's governments would be declaring a new War on Pirates? As you read this, the British Royal Navy – backed by the ships of more than two dozen nations, from the US to China – is sailing into Somalian waters to take on men we still picture as parrot-on-the-shoulder pantomime villains. They will soon be fighting Somalian ships and even chasing the pirates onto land, into one of the most broken countries on earth. But behind the arrr-me-hearties oddness of this tale, there is an untold scandal. The people our governments are labelling as "one of the great menaces of our times" have an extraordinary story to tell – and some justice on their side.

Pirates have never been quite who we think they are. In the "golden age of piracy" – from 1650 to 1730 – the idea of the pirate as the senseless, savage Bluebeard that lingers today was created by the British government in a great propaganda heave. Many ordinary people believed it was false: pirates were often saved from the gallows by supportive crowds. Why? What did they see that we can't? In his book Villains Of All Nations, the historian Marcus Rediker pores through the evidence.

If you became a merchant or navy sailor then – plucked from the docks of London's East End, young and hungry – you ended up in a floating wooden Hell. You worked all hours on a cramped, half-starved ship, and if you slacked off, the all-powerful captain would whip you with the Cat O' Nine Tails. If you slacked often, you could be thrown overboard. And at the end of months or years of this, you were often cheated of your wages.

Pirates were the first people to rebel against this world. They mutinied – and created a different way of working on the seas. Once they had a ship, the pirates elected their captains, and made all their decisions collectively, without torture. They shared their bounty out in what Rediker calls "one of the most egalitarian plans for the disposition of resources to be found anywhere in the eighteenth century".

They even took in escaped African slaves and lived with them as equals. The pirates showed "quite clearly – and subversively – that ships did not have to be run in the brutal and oppressive ways of the merchant service and the Royal Navy." This is why they were romantic heroes, despite being unproductive thieves.

The words of one pirate from that lost age, a young British man called William Scott, should echo into this new age of piracy. Just before he was hanged in Charleston, South Carolina, he said: "What I did was to keep me from perishing. I was forced to go a-pirateing to live." In 1991, the government of Somalia collapsed. Its nine million people have been teetering on starvation ever since – and the ugliest forces in the Western world have seen this as a great opportunity to steal the country's food supply and dump our nuclear waste in their seas.

Yes: nuclear waste. As soon as the government was gone, mysterious European ships started appearing off the coast of Somalia, dumping vast barrels into the ocean. The coastal population began to sicken. At first they suffered strange rashes, nausea and malformed babies. Then, after the 2005 tsunami, hundreds of the dumped and leaking barrels washed up on shore. People began to suffer from radiation sickness, and more than 300 died.

Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, the UN envoy to Somalia, tells me: "Somebody is dumping nuclear material here. There is also lead, and heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury – you name it." Much of it can be traced back to European hospitals and factories, who seem to be passing it on to the Italian mafia to "dispose" of cheaply. When I asked Mr Ould-Abdallah what European governments were doing about it, he said with a sigh: "Nothing. There has been no clean-up, no compensation, and no prevention."

At the same time, other European ships have been looting Somalia's seas of their greatest resource: seafood. We have destroyed our own fish stocks by overexploitation – and now we have moved on to theirs. More than $300m-worth of tuna, shrimp, and lobster are being stolen every year by illegal trawlers. The local fishermen are now starving. Mohammed Hussein, a fisherman in the town of Marka 100km south of Mogadishu, told Reuters: "If nothing is done, there soon won't be much fish left in our coastal waters."

This is the context in which the "pirates" have emerged. Somalian fishermen took speedboats to try to dissuade the dumpers and trawlers, or at least levy a "tax" on them. They call themselves the Volunteer Coastguard of Somalia – and ordinary Somalis agree. The independent Somalian news site WardheerNews found 70 per cent "strongly supported the piracy as a form of national defence".

No, this doesn't make hostage-taking justifiable, and yes, some are clearly just gangsters – especially those who have held up World Food Programme supplies. But in a telephone interview, one of the pirate leaders, Sugule Ali: "We don't consider ourselves sea bandits. We consider sea bandits [to be] those who illegally fish and dump in our seas." William Scott would understand.

Did we expect starving Somalians to stand passively on their beaches, paddling in our toxic waste, and watch us snatch their fish to eat in restaurants in London and Paris and Rome? We won't act on those crimes – the only sane solution to this problem – but when some of the fishermen responded by disrupting the transit-corridor for 20 per cent of the world's oil supply, we swiftly send in the gunboats.

The story of the 2009 war on piracy was best summarised by another pirate, who lived and died in the fourth century BC. He was captured and brought to Alexander the Great, who demanded to know "what he meant by keeping possession of the sea." The pirate smiled, and responded: "What you mean by seizing the whole earth; but because I do it with a petty ship, I am called a robber, while you, who do it with a great fleet, are called emperor." Once again, our great imperial fleets sail – but who is the robber?

Special Announcement from: BN-W/Educate-Empower

The media's doing the usual hatchet job on truth telling and reporting a bunch of half truths – this time it’s about the "facts" in the Somalia story. Most of the lopsided accounts told by reporters and anchors tell not one iota of the history of why the Somalis were forced to start “pirating” in 1991, which include these fundamental facts:

- mostly Europeans and Asians have been illegally stealing fish (aka seafood) from the Somali waters worth hundreds of millions of dollars for many years, which has naturally reduced the food supply for the people of Somalia,

- and European countries have also been dumping toxic and nuclear wastes into the waters, which has not only caused the human population to suffer rashes, abdominal bleeding, nausea, malformed babies, radiation sickness, cancer-like symptoms, and other ills that are current (and those that will inevitably occur), but it has also caused illness and death among the sea life and endangered species.

These countries are able to get away with this because Somalia has no real government and the United Nations and European Union have done little to nothing to stop the massive thievery through illegal fishing as well as the hazardous waste dumping that’s become a multi-billion dollar industry.

For more background on this now ubiquitous news story, view videos and read the following links:

Black Agenda Report: Glen Ford's audio/article: “US Aircraft Elite Navy SEALs Defeat Three Somalis in a Lifeboat”.

Mohamed Abshir Waldo’s essay: “The Two Piracies in Somalia: Why the World Ignores the Other?” Also listen to his Democracy Now! interview.

DaveyD video: Interview with Somali rapper K’Naan

DaveyD video: K’Naan interview continued (history)

HardKnockTV video: Interview with K’Naan

K’Naan’s article: “Why We Don’t Condemn Our Pirates in Somalia.” Read at Alternet or DaveyD

Johann Hari’s article: “You Are Being Lied to About Pirates.” Read at The Independent or Alternet

Jeremy Scahill’s article: “‘Pirates’ Strike a U.S. Ship…But Is the Media Telling the Whole Story?” or RebelReports

Those who've read the few links that's been in the recent BN-W eNewsletters concerning AFRICOM know that this might be a place America may try to put that military base that's currently forced to stay in Stuttgart, Germany, because no African country has agreed to allow it to be based anywhere in Africa. But, now with the staged U.S. government furor over Somali “pirates” (which is nothing new in those waters) and the corporate media's usual one-sidedness, it appears that America may be scheming up another plan to control Africa and its vast natural resources.


NUBIART: Focus on arts, business, education, health, political developments and the media.
~ Review of ‘African Identity in Asia: Cultural Effects of Forced Migration’ by Dr Shihan De Silva Jarasuriya. Continuing our look at east Afrika we explore links with Asia.

~ ’Music From the Blue Nile’ – Salma Al Assal, Hassouna Bangaladish & Mohammed Al Semary [ARC Music – Out Now] Songs from Sudanese Nubia, many of which were written in the 1920s and 30s.

~ ‘Ancient Civilisations of Southern Africa 4: The Xhosa People’ – Blues Ntaka [ARC Music – Out Now] Continuing the series with traditional songs and chants on the Xhosa people, famous for their ‘click’ language. The music tells of the Xhosa royal family, hunting expeditions, relationships, the anti-apartheid struggle, migrant labour, male circumcision and Sangoma healing.

~ ‘Caribbean Tropical Music: Martinique’ – Ballet Exotic du Robert [ARC Music – Out Now] Variety of styles from the French-run Caribbean island including: beguine, mazurka, valse creole, boleros, compas and tambour. The surprise treat is a French soukous version of Prince Nico Mbarga’s classic ‘Sweet Mother’ called ‘Oh Mama’.

We will try to recommend books we have read and DVD / videos we have seen and that are available in shops or libraries. However, given the nature and current state of Afrikan publishing and production there may be books, games and films on this list that are worth the extra effort to track down.
~ ‘Nubian Spirit: The African Legacy of the Nile Valley’. Dir: Louis Buckley [Black Nine Films] Journey through ancient Afrika’s golden times with director-producer and narrator Louis Buckley. Essential.
~ ‘African Identity in Asia: Cultural Effects of Forced Migration’ – Dr Shihan De Silva Jarasuriya [Markus Wiener Publishers. ISBN: 978-1-55876-472-9] Exploration of the Afrikans who were forcibly moved eastwards into Asia. While the western hemisphere Afrikan enslavement holocaust is much documented (and even celebrated by some) there is still much work to be done on the Afrikan diaspora in Asia, the Indian Ocean, China and the Pacific. This book is a contribution to revealing that history.
~ ‘Pynter Bender’ - Jacob Ross [Harper Perennial. ISBN: 978-0-00-722298-8] Multi-generational novel set on a Caribbean island looking at the lives of the ordinary people as they struggle to shake off the shackles of colonialism and the tyranny of the cane fields that brought about their kidnap and transplantation from Afrika. A recurring theme is the reason why many households are left without adult males either through migration, employment, imprisonment, bereavement, relationship breakdown or a focus on the macro-social injustices afflicting societies that leave personal issues unresolved. Engrossing first novel by Jacob Ross, better known for his short stories and his involvement in teaching writing techniques at Centerprise.

• ~ THE AFRICA ASIA CENTRE seminar on ‘Towards a Trilateral Dialogue? Africa, Europe and the Problem of China’ with Denis Tull (Research Fellow, SWP, Berlin). Discussant: Zhang Chun (Research Fellow, Department of West Asia & Africa Studies, Shanghai Institutes for International Studies). On Tues 5 May at 1pm at G3, SOAS, Thornhaugh Street, London, WC2. Info:

~ ROYAL AFRICAN SOCIETY, OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE AND AFRICA ASIA CENTRE present ‘The Global Recession and Africa: Where Next After The G20?’ World leaders heralded the G20 summit as the day the world ‘fought back against the recession’. But the global financial crisis continues to deepen in Africa. With the commodity boom turning to bust for many countries, remittances falling, and investments drying up, questions remain about the long-term economic and political repercussions for the continent. Experts analyse critical issues surrounding the global recession and Africa, including the implications of the decisions made by the G20, and the impacts of the crisis on political stability, regional trade, and China’s role in Africa. Speakers: Razia Khan (Chief Economist - Africa, Standard Chartered); Patrick Smith (Editor, Africa Confidential); Dirk Willem te Velde (Programme Leader, ODI); Chair: HE Mr Antonio Gumende (Mozambique High Commissioner). On Tues 5 May at 5.30–7pm at Overseas Development Institute, 111 Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1. Booking is essential through ODI:

~ ROYAL AFRICAN SOCIETY present ‘Malawi at the Crossroads: The Last Great Battle of the Kamuzu Era Giants?’ Malawi goes to the polls on May 19 in a crucial election that will either return current president, Bingu wa Mutharika, or replace him with veteran John Tembo, once the political henchman of Hastings Banda. But, if he wins, will Mutharika secure a parliamentary majority? And if Tembo wins will his coalition, which includes former president Bakili Muluzi, hold together? The politics are bitter and highly personal but there is also real choice for voters. Is the election about the economy where Mutharika can claim some success, or is it about the political system where the opposition champions democratic process and the constitution? These issues are profound and the future of Malawi is at stake in what is the hardest fought battle for power since Malawi turned to multi-party democracy. Speakers:
Dr Linje Manyozo (LSE); Bernabe Sanchez (World Bank); Chifundo Kachale (SOAS School of Law). On Wed 6 May at 6pm at Room H102, Connaught House, LSE, London, WC2A 2AE. Adm: Free, space is limited. RSVP

~ NU-BEYOND AND BLACK STAR LINE discussion with Brother Paliani on the role of Rastafari in the Post-Colonial struggles in Malawi for Afrikan liberation. Brother Paliani is an activist, a writer and historian based in Malawi and in this talk he will demonstrate the links between the post-colonial struggles in Malawi, Jamaica and other places in the Afrikan Diaspora. He will feature archival footage of Malawi's history. On Wed May 6 at 7pm at Unit 9 Eurolink Business Centre, 49 Effra Road, Brixton, SW2 1BZ. Adm: £5. Check out Brother Paliani on:

~ EDUCATION AND COMMUNITY SEMINAR: Ipaja Community Link and Community Development Field Trips to Nigeria. Yomi Oloko, of Development Impact for Nigeria (a UK based Nigerian Diaspora organisation that aims to mobilise Nigerians in the Diaspora to support development in Nigeria - will discuss making field trips to Nigeria to support DIFN's work with Ipaja Community Link in Lagos -
On Wed 6 May at 4-5.30pm at Stratford Campus of the University of East London, London, E15 4LZ. Contact: Costas Liantis e-mail:

~ PAN AFRIKAN SOCIETY COMMUNITY FORUM presents ‘Afrikan Freedom means Defeating Neo-colonialism: Nkrumah @ 100 (1909-2009)’. When we were oppressed under slavery and colonialism our ancestors knew it; they knew that they had to remove these oppressive systems in order to be free. It is a massive contradiction that despite the fact that we are actually living in the neo-colonial phase of history, most of us do not know what it is. The critical task before us therefore, is to raise our collective level of consciousness of the nature of neo-colonialism and how to defeat it in Afrikan communities everywhere. At 6:30pm at 44-46 Offley Road, The Oval, London, SW9 0LS. Adm: Free

- Fri 8 May: International class analysis, European workers & anti-Afrikan racism

- Fri 15 May: Contrasting the approaches of Presidents Nkrumah and Obama

~ AFROVENEZUELA. BLACK POWER SPICE IN THE PEOPLE'S POWER OF THE BOLIVARIAN REVOLUTION. A Celebration of Afrikan-Venezuelan Day (10 May) in Internationalist Solidarity with the Bolivarian Revolution. On Sat 9 May at 12.30-9pm at Bolivar Hall, 54 Grafton Way, London, W1T 5DL. For more info tel: 07960 958 456 / 020 7582 7968. E-Mail:

~ ADAP DVD EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME. The Real Mckoy (comedy series). Take a trip back to the 1990's when African-Britain used to have belly-laughs to a positive Afri-centred comedy series. Screening the finest comedic talents in the Afrikan diaspora. On 10 May at 2-5.30pm at Centerprise, 136-138 Kingsland High St, Dalston, London, E8 2NS. Adm: Free. Tel: 07904 495 387 or 07846 026 165. E-mail: Web:

~ BFM FILM CLUB: AFRICAN SHORTS PROGRAMME: An eclectic mix of short films from the 10th BFM International Film Festival. The award winning ‘Survivor’ (Dir: Nicole Volavka), a tale of friendship made on fragile emotional grounds in the world of London’s night cleaners. Fast paced ‘Area Boys’ (Dir: Omelihu Nwanguma), lifelong friends Bode and Obi decide to sever the ties to their life of crime for good, but their plans fall apart before it’s began. ‘Sensual Movement (R)evolution Africa’ (Dir: Joan Frosch and Alla Korgan), riveting stories of nine Afrikan choreographers who unveil soul shaking responses to the beauty and tragedy of the 21st century through dance. On Sun 10 May at 4.15 pm at Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA), The Mall, London, SW1. Adm: £8 non-members / £7 concs / £6 members. Book: 0207 930 3647 or online at / BFM: or contact Film Club Co-ordinator Nadia Denton at nadia@bfmmedia

~ BLACK HISTORY STUDIES PRODUCTIONS presents “Lumumba: Death of a Prophet,” the award-winning feature documentary about Afrikan political leader Patrice Lumumba, who was Prime Minister of Zaire (now Congo) when he was assassinated in 1961. Run Time: 69 mins. Dir: Raoul Peck. French with English subtitles

- Tues 12 May: at the PCS Learning Centre, 3rd Floor, 231 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, SW1V 1EH. Doors open at 6.30pm. The screening will start at 7pm sharp!!!

- Thurs 14 May 2009: at the Parish Room at St Michael's Church, Bounds Green Road, London N22 8HE. Doors open at 7.00pm. The screening will start at 7:30pm sharp!!!

Adm: £4. Food and refreshments on sale. Black History Studies Ltd, PO Box 45189, London, N15 3XP.
Tel / Fax: 0208 881 0660. Mobile: 07951 234233. E-mail: Web: or

~ SCREENINGS: ‘MAISHA SOLUTIONS - EVERY DOOR HAS ITS OWN KEY’. Toyin Agbetu writer, film director, poet and the founder of Ligali, the Pan African human rights based organisation where he is head of social and education policy, will screen and discuss his recent film, Maisha Solutions (Part One) on Wed 13 May at 6.30-8.30pm at Stratford Campus of the University of East London, London, E15 4LZ

~ SEMINARS / TALKS ON AFRIKAN (BLACK) BRITAIN: David Clover, Librarian, ICS: Dispersed or destroyed: archives, the West Indian Students’ Union and public memory. On May 13 at 6-7.30pm at the
Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, 28 Russell Square, London, WC1B 5DS.

~ BLACK STAR LINE screening of Nu-Beyond's ‘Resisting the System: Reggae in the 21st century’, an insightful and thought provoking film by Dr Lez Henry exploring sexism, homophobia and shadism in reggae culture today. On May 15 at 7pm at Unit 9 Eurolink Business Centre, 49 Effra Road, Brixton, London, SW2 1BZ. Adm: £5. For more info check

~ OCTAVIA FOUNDATION AND THE HERITAGE LOTTERY FUND present ‘Grove Roots’ which unearths the rise of the Notting Hill Carnival, the fruition of 'Frestonia' and the lives of unique local figures such as Claudia Jones and Peter Rachmann. Featuring musicians, artists, community workers and residents, the film tells the story of the Ladbroke Grove area from the 1958 race riots to the ethnically rich place it is today. On Sat 16 May at 4pm at 12 Acklam Rd, W10 5QZ. Event will take place following Kelso Cochrane memorial walk (starts 12pm Kensal Green Cemetery)

~ BOOK LAUNCH: ‘GEORGE PADMORE: PAN-AFRICAN REVOLUTIONARY’. Edited by Fitzroy Baptiste and Rupert Lewis. This will be a round-table discussion with two of the contributors, Hakim Adi, Reader, Middlesex University and Marika Sherwood, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Commonwealth Studies and two exciting PhD students, Christian Hogsbjerg, working on 'CLR James in Imperial Britain, 1932-1938' at the University of York and Leslie James, researching 'A Biography on George Padmore', at the International History Department, LSE. On Tues 19 May at 5-7pm at Institute of Commonwealth Studies, 28 Russell Square, London, WC1B 5DS

~ BLACK CULTURAL ARCHIVES presents an evening to celebrate their projects ‘Documenting The Archives’ and ‘Oral Histories of the Black Women’s Movement’. On Tues May 19 at 6.30pm at Karibu Education Centre, 7 Gresham Road, Brixton, London. Adm: Free, booking essential. Tel: 020 7582 8516 (office hours). E-mail to reserve your place. For more info check: or

~ REGGAE EXHIBITION: Reggae lover and a photographer, Roman Vesper was lucky to live in Jamaica for many years and began to take photos of vintage record artists while working at Studio One. 'The main aim of this exhibition is to keep those who laid down the foundation of reggae music in the public consciousness. People do have short memories and it is clear that many of these icons of Jamaica's history are being forgotten. Many of these singers and musicians have passed away since I left Jamaica in June 2004. And I see this exhibition as a way of also knowing them. All of the artists were great wonderful people and freely told me stories and how they lived their lives. So here is my photographic tribute to them'. Until 20 June at Centerprise Gallery, 136-138 Kingsland High St, Dalston, London, E8 2NS. Adm: Free. For further details contact: Emmanuel Amevor on 020 7254 9632.

Contact Details

Kubara Zamani, Afrikan Quest International, PO Box 35165, London, SE5 8WU. Tel: 07811 494 969. E-mail: Web:

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