‘The Enlightenment Abolished: Citizens of Britishness’ by Prof Geoff Palmer [Henry Publishing. ISBN: 0-9549519-1-3]
“…this narrative is an attempt to show the terrible consequences of slavery, ignorance and prejudice.” – [p8]
This is a fascinating book written by a former Professor of Grain Science at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. Professor Palmer wrote the foreword to Encyclopedia on Grain Science (2004). While we are sure Professor Palmer never had this in mind at the time of writing reading the book against the backdrop of the self-induced banking credit crunch in which so many major Scottish institutions – Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBoS) - and individuals -including British PM Gordon Brown, Chancellor Alistair Darling and Sir Fred (the Shred) Goodwin – have played prominent, if not admirable roles, makes for sobering reading.
The book takes a multi-pronged approach exploring Scottish involvement in the Afrikan holocaust, Prof Palmer’s personal history, his role as an educator and community activist and ends with a selection of articles he has had published in the national media over the past forty years on issues as diverse as police harassment, the legacy of enslavement in Scotland and international trade and development. While we don’t always agree with his conclusions the book clearly signposts the areas that we as Afrikans need to focus our attention on if we are to see any genuine improvement in our life expectancy and economic viability.
‘The Enlightenment Abolished: Citizens of Britishness’ is dedicated to Robert Wedderburn, son of James Wedderburn of Inveresk, and his enslaved Afrikan, Rosanna. Inveresk Lodge was bought with 27 years of slave labour money. Lord Bill Wedderburn and his wife, Frances, were descendants of Reverend Robert Wedderburn. In 2007 they staged The Robert Wedderburn Walk in memory of their ancestor who was turned away from Inveresk Lodge.
“Professor Palmer maintains that the anomalous word ‘race’ is judgemental, divisive, scientifically meaningless and reinforces stereotypes…In terms of logic, it is nonsense to refer to ‘races of people’ and retain the concept of Human race. Instead of using the phrase ‘race relations’, we should concentrate our efforts on improving Human relations.” [p9]
He also believes that “’Equal opportunity’ is a pointless concept if people do not have the means to realise opportunities…if education fails the law cannot afford to fail.” [p9]
The racist school system and the overused denigration of ‘educationally sub-normal’ are castigated: “Black parents’ enthusiasm for education was seriously damaged by white teachers, who dismissed their hopes for their children as ‘unrealistic expectations’.” [p71]
Meanwhile in the elevated halls of the seats of higher learning: “The racist concepts of intelligence that have been drawn from the book, The Bell Curve, or from the work and views of Eysenck, Jensen and Watson are scientifically worthless because they were derived from surveys which had no controls…It is nonsense to compare the academic performance of under-privileged children with those of privileged children of any ethnic group. Such kinds of dangerous propaganda masquerading as science would not be tolerated in any other area of scientific research.” [p95]
Prof Palmer condemns the term ‘Black-on-Black’ crime for racialising crime. He poses a dilemma for himself by wanting to stop using the term ‘Afro-Caribbean’ while accepting ‘Afro-American’. We are more comfortable with the terms Afrikan or Afrikan-. “Role models usually encourage imitation of life style, they are not substitutes for the education and skills required to meet social expectations.” [p101]
We do agree with him, though, that attempts to remove racial prejudice are not special treatment. British priests consider showing children the images of slavery would be upsetting not how upsetting for the children of slaves forced to watch brutality. Modern slavery carries ‘no sins’ so church can speak actively and passionately on it. [P18]
David Hume, in 1753, said Black people could imitate white people but would never be equal to them. Leading Prof Palmer to wonder, “How could “enlightened people” allow Chattel slavery to go on for so long?” [p29]
More British soldiers died in Caribbean than in Europe. This softened up the French for Nelson at Trafalgar in 1805. “The British Navy was at its most powerful and Naval captains such Benbow, Rodney, Nelson, Howe, Hood, Bligh, Duckworth, Wallis Vincent and others are now part of the elite history of the British Navy because they protected the British slave empire in the New World…Robert Burns thanked Admiral Rodney for defending Jamaica from the French and the Spanish at he Battle of the Saints (also called, The Battle of the Glorious 12th of April) in 1782.” [p22]
Economist Adam Smith admitted slavery was the most profitable economic system. ‘Free’ slave labour referred to white slaves in his treatises. British slave labour in the West Indies was “the most profitable evil the world has known. Charles Davenant (1656-1714) the English economist said that, every white person from the British Islands brought in £10 (£1,000 at today’s value) clear annual profits to England; twenty times as much as a similar person in the Home Counties of England. William Pitt (1759-1806), the British Prime Minister asserted in 1798 that, the annual income from the West Indian plantations was £4million (about £400,000,000 at today’s value) compared wit £1million (about £100,000,000) from the rest of the world. Nearly two-thirds of this (£400,000,000) came from Jamaica alone.” [p24]
It was calculated 300 enslaved Afrikans were needed to produce 240 tons of sugar and 170 gallons of rum. Greenock in west Scotland housed one of the largest sugar businesses in the world. “The Royal African Company was set up in 1660 by the Royal Stuart family and reformed in 1672. It was headed by the brother of Charles II…James II. Its business purpose was to purchase or capture “Negro” slaves to supply the plantations of the New World. A slave bought for £2 could be sold for £60 into slavery. The efficiency in securing and transporting slaves was increased after the dissolution of the Royal Africa Company in 1698. This new free trade transported over 2 million slaves between 1680 and 1786…Between 1700 and 1800 there were about 11,000 slave ship sailings from London, Bristol and Liverpool.” [p25]
Between 1700 and 1786 about 610,000 enslaved Afrikans were transported to Jamaica. The average working life of a slave was less than five years. How important slavery was for the enrichment of Britain can be seen by the fact that: “On the 18th April 1797 the Caledonian Mercury newspaper in Scotland listed the number of slaves in the “British Sugar Colonies” as: 461,684…256,000 in Jamaica (1787); 62,000 in Barbados (1786); 37,808 in Antigua (1774) and 23,462 in St Kitts (1774)…these islands comprised the largest populations of slaves...In the Caledonian Mercury the total monetary value of 461,684 slaves was given as £338billion (at today’s value) with three exclamation marks of satisfaction. It is noteworthy that plantation land value, free labour, produce value and general economic value were not included in this figure of £38 billion.” [p32-33]
Following the Battle of Culloden in 1745 and the Highland Clearances many Scots were forced abroad. James Wedderburn’s father was hung at Culloden in 1745. The Wedderburn family owned the following estates in the Caribbean: Jerusalem, Retreat, Moreland, Paradise, Mount Edgecombe, Clenisia, Spring Garden, Baulk, Blue Castle and Blackheath. They also managed estates for absentee landlords such as Cunninghame who owned the 3,500 acre estate Grandvale. James Wedderburn‘s daughter, Jean, married Lord Selkirk, who owned a substantial part of Manitoba in Canada. One of his son’s became Lord Advocate. Another son, Andrew Wedderburn-Colvile, who rejected Robert Wedderburn, was chairman of the West India Docks in London. He became a governor of the Hudson Bay Company.
Scotland’s wholesale entrance into the slave holocaust was responsible for taking it out of poverty. Perth’s development was based on linen sold to slave colonies. “By 1740 the tobacco trade in Chesapeake was dominated by Glasgow tobacco merchants…Some of Glasgow’s streets still bear their surnames: Buchanan, Ingram and Glasford. Grand constructions such as Virginia Buildings and William Cunninghame’s house which is the original part of the Gallery of Modern Art, were both built with money gained from slavery.” [p25]
Cunninghame moved into sugar after the American war of Independence and had a plantation run by the Wedderburns. “By 1807 there were about 20,000 white people in Jamaica, about half of these were Scots and about one third of the slave populations were owned by Scots. British slaves were dressed mainly in Scottish linen.” [p26]
Other beneficiaries included James Ewing (1775-1853) “a Sugar baron (in his time, the best known public figure in Glasgow). He inherited large sugar plantations in Jamaica and initiated the building of the Glasgow necropolis (1828) and is buried there, next to the giant statue of John Knox.” [p26]
Henry Dundas was more powerful than William Pitt, the Prime Minister who died in 1806. He was also governor of the Bank of Scotland and ”promoted the careers of governors such as Alexander Lindsay, Lord Balcarres (1798) and Ninian Home (1792) on the British slave islands of such as Jamaica and Grenada respectively. After a war with the Maroons in Jamaica, Balcarres exiled many of them to maintain the efficiency of slavery.” [p32]
Dundas was responsible for sending the British Navy to try and stop the successful Haitian Revolution yet it had been proposed that to commemorate the anniversary of Slave Trade Abolition in 2007 ‘freedom’ on St Andrews Day will be celebrated around the 41 metres high monument of Britain’s uncrowned king of slavery.” [p34]
‘Rule Britannia’ written by Scot, James Thompson, in 1740, promotes enslavement of others. Scotland’s national poet, Robert Burns, bought a ticket to Jamaica in 1786, hoping to become a slave driver but did not sail. His ‘Ae Fond Kiss’ was a poem for Mrs MacLehose who went to Jamaica to be with her slave master husband in 1791. Thomas Thistlewood recorded his criteria for purchasing slaves.
In 1800 Jamaica alone had 300,000 enslaved Afrikans while the whole of America had 900,000. In 1834 there were 800,000 enslaved Afrikans in the British West Indies. John Gladstone, father of Prime Minister, William Gladstone, left £65m (at today’s value) in his will as profits from slavery. James Ewing left £22m (at today’s value). William Beckford had 22,000 acres of slave plantations in Jamaica. He was the Lord Mayor of London. The Lascelles had plantations in Barbados and Jamaica. They built Harewood House in Yorkshire. The Jamaican phone book has 800 Beckfords and 2,300 Campbells. There are twice as many Campbells there as in Edinburgh.
There were some successes with Somerset set free by Lord Mansfield in 1772 and Joseph Knight set free in Scotland in 1778. But the holocaust continued with the executions of Bussa (1816), Gladstone (1823) and Sam Sharpe (1832) which occurred after the abolition of the slave trade. Percival (1762-1812) who helped Wilberforce to secure Slave Trade Abolition. He was murdered by a disaffected merchant and is the only British Prime Minister to be assassinated. Abolition of the slave trade increased the price of slaves in Cuba, Brazil and US. Slaveowners tried forced breeding of those slaves held in the period between abolition of trade and abolition of slavery. The bill was rejected at least seven times from 1791. It did receive support from Robert Wedderburn (1762-1835) and Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797). On the Apprentice Scheme Professor Palmer notes: “In this “milder” slavery, marriage would be allowed if sanctioned by the slave master. Women were to be flogged in private, instead of in public. Maximum lashes would be 39.” [p34]
Henry Larmond was Professor Palmer’s ancestor in Jamaica who bought the family’s land at Marshall Pen. After the land was exhausted they, moved to Allman Town in Kingston. When Prof Palmer arrived in Britain as a youth he didn’t know what to call his mum after six years apart. This shows the effects of even a temporary separation on the human psyche.
Where we take issue with Prof Palmer is in his belief that Britishness is about historical links rather than skin colour, democracy and fairness. Former Tory Minister Sir Keith Joseph humiliated Prof Palmer when he went to an interview for a research post in 1964. Yet it was the resilience and education inherited from his Afrikan ancestors that allowed the Professor to achieve his goals and nearly five decades later document his experience of what some of the best educated people in Britain – the inheritors of the so-called Enlightenment - have to offer Afrikans.
Many Afrikans are still deluded into expecting good treatment from what they consider ‘the Mother Country’ when, at best, Britain is an adopted mother and at worst a kidnapper who uses, abuses and then refuses Afrikans when they are considered to have outlived their usefulness to the metropolitan capital. Until that truth is accepted those who retain unrequited love for Britain will always be traumatised by the repeated number of times they have sand kicked in their face when they are stretching out the hand of friendship and humanity. “The terrible torture that Jamaicans suffered during and after slavery never grew into disloyalty. They fought for the Empire when called…That we who slaved for Britain without pay should now have to fill in visa forms and take citizen tests, is to us ‘the worst of sins’” [p63-4]
Professor Palmer points out that high fees have put off many leaders and professionals from the Commonwealth who used to take pride in studying in Britain. Britain has changed its allegiance and priorities away from its former colonies to its fellow Europeans and there is now a dire need to save the Caribbean sugar industry from the policies of European Commission. “The most effective help a developing country can have is help that reduces foreign exchange expenditure.” [p43]
One theme that recurs and resonates throughout the book is ‘My colour is me’. We will end with extracts from a poem with a refrain in English, Yoruba and Akan.
- A Slave’s Enlightenment
…You forced your culture on us in short time
But destroying ours was the greater crime
This dishonouring was long and brutally done
And has made us all what we have become…
So, why were we not as good as you?
…When we fought and rebelled in our defence
You hanged or slow-burned us for impudence
Often in dark silence we would cry
If this is life, then let us die
And fly from the self interest of the lie…
Kilode ti awa ko se da to eyin?
…Unlike the progenies of animal and grass
Our children will remember the past
But no task on earth is harder
Than to redress the “sins of the Father”.
Abolition was not an act divine,
It was then politic to cover the crime…
Nyaa, o gini bu na anyi adiro nma ka unu?...
FORTHCOMING NUBIART PROFILES
NUBIART: Focus on arts, business, education, health, political developments and the media.
~'Léman' - Blick Bassy [World Connection. Released 20 Apr]. Singer / songwriter / guitarist / percussionist Bassy moved to Paris in 2005 where he started working with Manu Dibango, Cheikh Tidiane Seck, Lokua Kanza and Etienne Mbappé, leaving behind Cameroon as well as Macase, the award-winning group he had been a member of for almost 10 years. Regarded as the new soul voice of Cameroon, Bassy sings in, Bassa, one of the 260 Cameroonian languages that fewer and fewer children know how to speak. Bassy's soulful sound blends influences such as Gilberto Gil, Marvin Gaye and Nat King Cole. On his debut solo album Bassy connects the music of Central and West Africa with bossa nova, jazz and soul. 'Léman' was recorded in Salif Keita’s studio in Bamako, Mali, and in Paris, and co-produced by Jean Lamoot (known for his work with Souad Massi, Salif Keita, Nneka and Kasse Mady Diabaté) and Jean-Louis Solans. For more info: http://www.myspace.com/blickbassy2
NUBIART LIBRARY – APR MEDIA:
We will try to recommend books we have read and DVD / videos we have seen and that are available in shops or libraries. However, given the nature and current state of Afrikan publishing and production there may be books, games and films on this list that are worth the extra effort to track down.
~ ‘Milk, Money And Honey: Changing Concepts In Rwandan Healing’ – Christopher C Taylor [Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN: 1-56098-104-0] “One can imagine social life without conflict or contradiction; one can imagine an environment that always provides for its inhabitants; one can imagine an immortal human body free from pathology; but one cannot live these states outside the imagination...Healers were Rwandan culture’s tragicomic heroes, warriors in a battle whose outcome had already been written; they might postpone the inevitable, but they would never alter the fundamental nature of the creator Rurema’s legacy to his sons.” [p50]
~ ‘The Enlightenment Abolished: Citizens of Britishness’ – Prof Geoff Palmer [Henry Publishing. ISBN: 0-9549519-1-3] A timely and moving document that deals with the consequences of trans-Atlantic Afrikan enslavement with a special focus on the participation of Scottish bankers, planters and industrialists in maintaining the horrors.
~ ‘Work, Play and No Rest’ – Julio Cesar Osorio [Work, Play and No Rest. ISBN: 0-9548974-0-4 Photographic journal of children at work and play in Colombia, Mexico, South Africa and Venezuela. Proceeds from the book will go towards Beautiful Gate HIV / AIDS Care Centre in Crossroads, South Africa and the Aldea Orphanage Fund in Albercay, Peru, to set up a trade school.
~ UN WORLD CONFERENCE AGAINST RACISM (WCAR) in Geneva April 20-24 2009. GAC-UK (Global Afrikan Congress - UK) will be sending a delegation and would welcome your input in to this work. For more info contact Co - Chair Gee Bernard on 020 8771 9700.
~ MELLOW invite you to the “It’s All about Relationships” Event. As you may be aware Mellow commissioned an evaluation to highlight good practice and explore the model that 4Sight has adopted to promote the mental well being of Afrikan and Caribbean men. On 21 Apr. Places limited. For more info contact Tigist on 020 7655 4170 or e-mail Mellow.Centre@eastlondon.nhs.uk to register.
~ THE CARIBBEAN-EU EPA: A MODEL AGREEMENT? This free conference will assess the nature of the Caribbean-EU Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), assessing where we are now with its implementation, and looking forward to the future. Speakers will also explore its implications for other ACP members in Africa and the Pacific, currently negotiating similar deals with the EU. Chair: Andrew George, MP (West Cornwall & Scilly), Vice Chair of the All Party Parliamentary Group on Debt, Aid and Trade. Keynote address: David O’Sullivan (Director General for Trade, European Commission).
Panel One: ‘The Caribbean-EU EPA – an Overview’. Chair: Patsy Robertson; Ambassador Henry Gill, Director-General of the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery; HE The Hon Burchell Whiteman, OJ, High Commissioner of Jamaica; Dr Tony Heron, University of Sheffield.
Panel Two: ‘Where are we now? Implementation’. Chair: Dr Peter Clegg; Edmund Lawrence, Managing Director of the St Kitts Nevis Anguilla National Bank; John Rapley, President, Caribbean Policy and Research Institute; and David Jessop, Director of the Caribbean Council.
Panel Three: ‘The African and Pacific EPAs’. Chair: Dr Amanda Sives; Christopher Stevens, ODI; Dr Paul Goodison, Formerly Brussels Research Office (TBC); Roy Rodrigues, Commonwealth Secretariat.
On 22 Apr at 1-5pm at The Royal Commonwealth Society, 25 Northumberland Avenue, London, WC2N 5AP. Tel: 020 7766 9202. E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.thercs.org
~ BLAK FRIDAY. Nu-Beyond present ‘White Men’s Wealth=Black Women’s Poverty: Trade, Aid & Gender’ Tony Warner asks if you have ever wondered why your one English pound translates to 100+ Jamaican dollars or 250 Naira? This interactive session with videos and analysis explains in detail how rich European countries get richer by making poor African countries poorer, how you contribute to that impoverishment and what you can do to stop it. Brother Tony will sample the work of Helen Wangusa, John Pilger, Walter Rodney, Hugo Chavez, Naomi Klein, Donna St Hill & Oliver Tambo to show the impact of European financial policies on African women around the world in general but in Jamaica, Ghana and Haiti in particular. On Fri 24 April at 7.30pm at Unit 9, Eurolink Business Centre, 49 Effra Road, Brixton, London, SW2 1BZ.
~ OCTAVIA FOUNDATION AND THE HERITAGE LOTTERY FUND present ‘Grove Roots’ which unearths the rise of the Notting Hill Carnival, the fruition of 'Frestonia' and the lives of unique local figures such as Claudia Jones and Peter Rachmann. Featuring musicians, artists, community workers and residents, the film tells the story of the Ladbroke Grove area from the 1958 race riots to the ethnically rich place it is today. On Fri 24 April at 7.30pm at Avenues, 3-7 Third Avenue, London, W10 4RS
~ PAN AFRIKAN SOCIETY COMMUNITY FORUM presents ‘Afrikan Freedom means Defeating Neo-colonialism: Nkrumah @ 100 (1909-2009)’. When we were oppressed under slavery and colonialism our ancestors knew it; they knew that they had to remove these oppressive systems in order to be free. It is a massive contradiction that despite the fact that we are actually living in the neo-colonial phase of history, most of us do not know what it is. The critical task before us therefore, is to raise our collective level of consciousness of the nature of neo-colonialism and how to defeat it in Afrikan communities everywhere. At 6:30pm at 44-46 Offley Road, The Oval, London, SW9 0LS. Adm: Free
- Fri 24 Apr: Malcolm X and the 54th anniversary of Bandung - Internationalism strengthening nationalism
- Fri 1 May: The revolutionary significance of May Day
~ SCREENINGS: ‘MAISHA SOLUTIONS - EVERY DOOR HAS ITS OWN KEY’. Toyin Agbetu writer, film director, poet and the founder of Ligali, the Pan African human rights based organisation where he is head of social and education policy, will screen and discuss his recent film, Maisha Solutions (Part One) during the African Market Day at Woolwich Town Hall. On Sat 25 April at 12-2pm at Woolwich Town Hall, Market Street, London, SE18 6PW. Please note that there is limited seating available so registration will take place from 10.30-11.30am. The film will start at 12'pm.
~ THE CENTRE FOR TRANSLATION & COMPARATIVE CULTURE STUDIES AT WARWICK UNIVERSITY will host an interdisciplinary conference on the Caribbean and its diaspora ‘Memory / Postmemory, Music & Identity: The Construction of a Diasporic Black Caribbean Experience’. Speakers:
Dr. Carole Boyce Davies, Cornell University, USA; Dr. William (Lez) Henry, Nu-Beyond Ltd, UK; Lisa Wickham, E-Zone Entertainment, T&T; Troyton Rami, Black Shadow Records, USA. On Sat 25 Apr at Centre for Comparative Cultural Studies, Warwick University, Coventry, CV4 7AL UK. For more info contact La Tasha A. Brown: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/ctccs/news/conferences/caribbean
~ ETF PRESENTS’ African-British Civil Rights Heroes 1596-2006’. The bias in schools gives the impression that racism and civil rights was an American issue and totally ignores the struggles Black British people endured. For example: Shops in Oxford and Regent Streets in London refused to employ Afrikans; Afrikan and Asian children were bussed out of local schools so that there would not be "too many" of them; Racial attacks were a daily occurrence, ignored by police when they were not instigating them; Afrikans had to pay more to rent houses and for mortgages; There were calls for Afrikans schools as far back as the 1700's; In the 1790's a group of Afrikans in London were lobbying the government for the abolition of Afrikan enslavement; and In 1820 a Jamaican in London bought guns in order to overthrow the government.
Every area of life was contested at great cost. This presentation will give you the names and achievements of those who fought against British racism over the last 400 years. On Sun 26 Apr at 1-4.30pm at Imperial War Museum, Lambeth Road, London, SE1. Adm: Free. For info e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.iwm.org.uk Olive Morris - http://rememberolivemorris.wordpress.com/
~ THE ROYAL AFRICAN SOCIETY, HURST & CO AND THE CENTRE OF AFRICAN STUDIES present MADAGASCAR: THE ROOTS OF TURMOIL. A panel discussion accompanying the launch of
‘Madagascar: A Short History’ by Solofo Randrianja & Stephen Ellis. Madagascar is the fourth African country in less than a year to experience an illegitimate change of government. Speakers: Dr Stephen Ellis, Author, Desmond Tutu lecturer at Free University Amsterdam; Volatiana Rahaga, President, Association of the Malagasy Residents in the UK; Adam Roberts, News Editor, Economist.com On Tues 28 Apr at 6-8pm in the Brunei Suite, SOAS, Russell Square, London, WC1H 0XG. E-mail: email@example.com
- Stephen Ellis will also be speaking at the Frontline Club on Mon 27 April: www.frontlineclub.com
~ 198 CONTEMPORARY ARTS AND LEARNING present ‘[re]locate: A sonic installation by Tahera Aziz’
(What Stephen Lawrence Has Taught Us by Benjamin Zephaniah). The impetus for the work flows from the tragic events surrounding the racially motivated murder of 18-year-old Stephen Lawrence near a bus stop in south London in 1993, and the deep impact this has had publicly particularly following the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry into the police handling of the murder investigation, and its subsequent lack of resolution. This launch celebrates the creative outcomes of the AHRC research project and marks a transition of the work into a form for public viewing and response. From 30 Apr-2 May at 11am-5pm at 198 Contemporary Arts and Learning, 198 Railton Road, London, SE24 OJT. Adm: Free. Tel: 020 7978 8309. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
~ INSTITUTE OF REGENERATIVE TRUTH, NU-BEYOND & BLACK STARLINE present ‘Ancient Dedication or Contemporary Education? On Fri 1 May at 6.30pm at Castle Lecture Theatre, South Bank University, London, SE1. Adm: Free. For details contact: email@example.com
~ ANCIENT FUTURE & MUATTA BOOKS PRESENT - THE ANCESTRAL EXPERIENCE. A day of readings, lectures & workshops celebrating our Ancestors, the Nkisi’s and Orisha’s with: Sis Osunwummi, Yoruba Priestess; Elliott Rivera, Santeria and Palo Priest; Sis Omalani, Oshun Priestess; Bro Israel, Ogun Initiate & Occultist; and Joe Blackmann, Esoteric Teacher. On Sun 3 May at 3pm at Happy People’s Restaurant, 160 Page Green Terrace, High Road Tottenham, London, N15 4NU. Adm: £7 (£5 Concs). Tel: 07983 442 876 or 07956 134 370 or E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
~ ADAP DVD EMPOWERMENT PROGRAMME. Marcus Garvey: U.N.I.A The History and Black Nationhood - See the largest Pan- African Organisation which created 10 million members world wide and understand its impact on the Pan-African movement. On 3 May 2009 at 2-5.30pm at Centreprise, 136-138 Kingsland High St, Dalston, London, E8 2NS. Adm: Free. Tel: 07904 495 387 or 07846 026 165
E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.adap.org.uk
~ CTJ DEMONSTRATION: Against judicial corruption, unlawful imprisonments and human rights abuses in the UK. ‘In a government of laws existence of the government will be imperilled if it fails to observe the law scrupulously. Government is the potent omnipresent teacher. For good or ill, it teaches the whole people by its example. If the government becomes a lawbreaker, it breeds contempt for the law. It invites every man to become a law unto himself. It invites anarchy’. Every Sat at 12-3pm HMP Wormwood Scrubs, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0AE. For further info contact Campaign For Truth & Justice. Tel 020 8516 4668. Mobile 07950 827 015. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ctjnet.co.uk
Kubara Zamani, Afrikan Quest International, PO Box 35165, London, SE5 8WU. Tel: 07811 494 969. E-mail: email@example.com Web: www.southwark.tv/quest/aqhome.asp
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